Course Reserve Information for Faculty
The purpose of Course Reserves is to assist the teaching faculty by providing a facility in which there is
controlled circulation of class material needed by their students. Traditional and digital course lists are
accessible through CENTRAL SEARCH by Instructor or Course Name. Signing into CENTRAL SEARCH first is essential for locating the material.
The materials for reserve may consist of:
These materials may be placed on reserve by bringing them to the Reserves office, located on the first floor in Access Services, and filling out a course list form or sending an email to firstname.lastname@example.org for library materials. They will be processed in order of receipt. Please allow at least 2 weeks during the first few weeks of the semester. There is no deadline for submitting materials for reserve.
Please include a copy of the course syllabus.
Important! All photocopies must include a credit line with the author, book or journal title, publisher and copyright date or volume & number from the work copied. No items will be processed without this information.
Personal copies placed on reserve will be security stripped, labeled, barcoded and cataloged, unless requested otherwise.
Items Ineligible for Course Reserve
Digital Reserves allow the library to make digital copies of book chapters, journal articles, class notes, images and sound files available to students 24 hours, 7 days a week from any computer with an internet connection. Digital reserves are available through CENTRAL SEARCH (select Course Reserves) searchable by Instructor or Course Name as traditional reserves by clicking on the titles that indicate “online access” and then by clicking on “files/(pdf)” to download a full text of the reading. Access to digital course reserves is limited to faculty, staff and students BlueNet ID and password. It is strongly recommended to sign into CENTRAL SEARCH first, prior to searching for Course Reserve materials.
The Following Materials May Be Placed On Digital Course Reserves:
Guidelines for Submitting Digital Reserves:
The library will scan print materials submitted by faculty. In most cases Adobe Acrobat (PDF) documents will be created. Please observe the following guidelines when submitting materials to be scanned:
If you are submitting a document that is available in word processing format, please submit the computer file rather than the print copy. It is much easier to convert, and file sizes are smaller. You may send files as email attachments to email@example.com.
Fair Use items submitted for traditional reserves will also be made available electronically unless faculty tell us otherwise.
Copyright and Fair Use
The Federal Copyright Law of 1976, Title 17 of the United States Code which granted exclusive rights to copyright holders was later modified by The Fair Use Statute, Section 107. This Fair Use doctrine balances the copyright holders rights with society's need for copying for news reporting, criticism, teaching, research, scholarship and parody. While the Fair Use doctrine allows limited copying of copyrighted work without obtaining permission from the copyright holder, Fair Use is not clear-cut. Congress deliberately avoided exact parameters for claiming Fair Use to allow for flexibility and instead suggested these four Fair Use guidelines to consider in determining whether a particular use of copyrighted materials is fair use and therefore not an infringement:
1. What is the purpose and character of the use?
2. What is the nature of the work to be used?
3. What is the amount, substantiality or portion used in relation to the copyrighted
work as a whole.
4. What effect would this use have on the potential market for the value of the
Purpose: While nonprofit educational purposes are favored over commercial uses, this factor alone doesn't constitute a fair use exemption. Generally the courts favor transformative use (excerpts incorporated into a new paper or pieces of a work mixed into a multimedia presentation) over reproduction of a work but the courts have allowed multiple copies of some works even if not transformative.
Nature: This factor examines the characteristics of the work considered for copying. Generally a published work is favored over an unpublished work. Nonfiction is generally favored over fiction and print over media. The courts are split on whether a published but currently out-of-print work should receive fair use exemption. Photocopying a consumable workbook is never allowed.
Amount: is measured both quantitatively and qualitatively. The courts have not recommended specific amounts. "Quantity must be evaluated relative to the length of the entire original and in light of the amount needed to serve a proper objective". While the copying of entire works is never considered fair use, the courts have also ruled that copying even a small amount, if it is "the heart of the work may weigh against fair use."
Effect: Some courts have called this the most important factor in fair use analysis. No copying, whether of an educational or commercial nature should replace the sale of the copyrighted work. Having purchased a copy of the original work weighs in favor of fair use while the availability of a license would weigh against fair use.
These four factors must be balanced in considering fair use. Satisfying one factor is not enough to claim fair use.
Sources: The Federal Copyright Law of 1975, Title 17 of the United States Code
Section 107 of The Copyright Act of 1976
Fair Use Overview and Meaning for Higher Education by Kenneth D. Crews, Associate Professor of Law and of Library and Information Science; Director, Copyright Management Center, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis
The following guidelines for photocopies are based on The Federal Copyright Law of 1976; The Fair Use Doctrine, Title 17; H.R. 2223, The Copyright Revision Bill; and the Model Policy Concerning College and University Photocopying for Classroom, Research and Library Reserve Use developed by The American Library Association (ALA) Legislation Committee, Copyright Subcommittee and legal counsel, The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Copyright Committee and The Association of Research Libraries (ARL).
The following items are considered fair use for one semester only. Repetitive copying (for materials in multiple courses or successive years) will require permission from the copyright owner.
In prose this is considered one complete article, story or essay of less than 2500 words; or an excerpt of no more than 10% of a work. In poetry, brevity is considered a complete poem of 250 words or less, or an excerpt of less than 250 words.
3. Cumulative Effect:
The copying of the material is for only one course. In addition, no more than one short poem, article, story, essay, or two excerpts may be copied from the same author, nor more than three from the same collective work or periodical volume during one academic term. Moreover the guideline specifies that there shall be no more than nine instances of multiple copying for one course during an academic year.
MATERIALS NOT UNDER COPYRIGHT PROTECTION:
Elihu Burritt Library
(access via Harold Lewis Drive)
Central Connecticut State University, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050